7 Various methods of pasteurization

Pasteurization refers to the process of heating every particle of milk or milk of the different classes to atleast 63°C (145°F) for 30 minute or 72°C (161°F) for 15 seconds or an approved temperature and time combination that will serve to negative phosphatase test, the milk is immediately cooled to 5°C (41°F) or below. ....  Read More

Questions PDF- 1: Veterinary Epidemiology, Preventive & Clinical Medicine

Questions with answers from subject: Veterinary Epidemiology, Veterinary Preventive Medicine and Veterinary Clinical Medicine .... 

Do you know this can also happens to your birds if you do not care?

Vitamin and Mineral Deficiency diseases of poultry are given as below; ....  Read More

Guidelines for prevention of spread of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

Guidelines for prevention of spread of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza are as follows; ....  Read More

Is it safe to eat poultry products of poultry infected with bird flu?

Yes, though certain precautions should be followed in countries currently experiencing outbreaks, which are as follows; ....  Read More

What drugs are available for treatment of bird flu infections?

Two drugs (in the neuraminidase inhibitors class), oseltamivir (commercially known as Tamiflu) and zanamivir (commercially known as Relenza) can reduce the severity and duration of illness caused by seasonal influenza. ....  Read More

What are the pandemic risks of bird flu?

A new influenza virus subtype emerges; it infects humans, causing serious illness; and it spreads easily and sustainably among humans. The H5N1 virus amply meets the first two conditions: it is a new virus for humans (H5N1 viruses have never circulated widely among people), and it has infected more than 100 humans, killing over half of them. ....  Read More

Migratory birds spread and carry which strains of avian influenza viruses

The role of migratory birds in the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza is not fully understood. ....  Read More

Investigational aspects of Bird flu during outbreaks

If there is a suspicion of Avian influenza (AI) in poultry, a thorough investigation by veterinarians of the Department of Animal Husbandry of the States should be carried out as follows: ....  Read More