Per-rectal Palpation of Female Genital Organs

There are need of meterial required in per-rectal examination, procedure and precautions to be taken in it, pregnancy diagnosis in bovine, normal birth in cow, care of post-partum dam and care of new born.
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Female reproductive system

Female reproductive system consists of Pair of ovaries, Duct system, pair of oviducts / Fallopian tubes, uterus, cervix, vagina, vestibular glands, clitoris, labia majora and minora. Hymen may be present at the junction of outer and inner vagina. Usually disintegrates as the animal cycles but may be removed surgically if needed.
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Repeat breeding in bovine

Female show NORMAL HEAT symptoms but not conceived in more than 2 to 3 service.
Cows that are cycling normally, with no clinical abnormalities, which have failed to conceive after at least two successive inseminations are known as repeat breeders.
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